Saturday, October 1, 2011

Recombinant DNA technology in agriculture

Genetic engineering, the application of genetics, is an ancient art in agriculture whose earliest practitioners simply used a keen eye to choose hardy races of plants for their cultivation. 

The 1970s has brought a new tool for genetic engineering in agriculture – recombinant DNA. The first recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecule was created in 1972 by researchers at Stanford University. 

Recombinant DNA techniques, also known as genetics engineering or genetic modification, refer to the modification of an organism’s genetic make-up using transgenesis, in which DNA from one cell (the transgene) is transferred to another without sexual reproduction. 

The breakthrough has spawned tremendous interest in directly incorporating specific genes into plants using r-DNA techniques. 

The incredible power of recombinant DNA technology lies partly in how precisely and quickly changes can be made and partly in the ability of molecular biologists to transfer genes from one organism to another. 

Recombinant DNA can reprogram organism to make new products. Products such as insulin and growth factor that are made by genetically engineered bacteria are already commercially important as pharmaceuticals. Recombinant DNA can be used to alter animals and plants genetically. 

Recombinant DANA technology involves four basic steps: 
*Production of defined fragments from naturally occurring long DNA molecules 
*Separation of the various DNA fragments and establishment of a genomic library 
*Isolation and propagation of a desired DNA fragment, followed by molecular biological analysis 
*Modifications of DNA and heterogeneous gene expression 
Recombinant DNA technology in agriculture

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