Sunday, December 21, 2014

Land for rice cultivation

The term land is defined here as a specific area of the earth surface characteristics that embrace all reasonably stable or predictably cyclic attributes related to the atmosphere, the soil, topography, the plant and animal population, and the results of human activity.

Rice cultivation on naturally flooded land predominates in many countries. The rice is transplanted into the puddles floodplain soil. Irrigated rice is grown under fully controlled irrigation, and can be grown in hot dry climates.

Soil characteristics that result in optimal growth and development of rice typically include profile features such as a level to gently sloping topography, a deep profile, physical and chemical characteristics that restrict the redistribution and drainage of water from zone and moderately acid to moderately alkaline soil pH.

The land qualities most relevant for rice growing are:
*Soil depth
*Moisture availability, seasonal soil moisture
*Oxygen availability in the root zone
*Hydrological: surface water depth, water table depth and availability of ground and surface water
*Nutrient availability
*Toxicity of soil and water
*Salinity and alkalinity
*Flooding hazards
*Drainage. Drainage determines soil oxidation-reduction potential, which affects rice growth and yielded.
*Workability and terrain factors
*Resistance to erosion
*Day length and climate. Rice grows only in warm climates on land with sufficient water supply.

Production of rice in the United States requires optimum climatic and soil conditions. Rice is grown in areas having high rates of solar radiation, warm air temperatures, a long growing season, and an extensive supply of water for irrigation.

Only a few states have areas that physiologically suited to growing rice. Aside from certain areas in the Mississippi River Delta that could expand rice production, there is a limited suitable land left that is not already in rice cropping rotation.
Land for rice cultivation

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