Sunday, July 29, 2018

Transgenic maize

Maize (Zea mays L.) or corn is the principal crop of the world and stands first among the grain crops in terms of production. It is primarily used as animal feed and raw materials for various industries, and only a minor proportion is used as direct human food. Many transgenic cultivars of maize have been developed over the years from this species, producing cultivars resistant to herbicides and insects, among other things.

First grown commercially in 1996, transgenic crops covered 135 million hectares (ha) in 25 countries during 2009. To reduce reliance on insecticide sprays, maize and cotton have been genetically engineered to make insecticidal proteins derived from the common bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt).

These Bt toxins kill some devastating insect pests, but unlike broad-spectrum insecticides, they do little or no harm to most other organisms, including people.

Hi-II (High type II callus production) is one of the most widely used genotype for commercial maize transformation. Callus induction is a critical step in maize transformation. Most maize genotypes produce a less compact and less regenerable type of callus termed as Type I callus.

Detection of transgenes and/or their products might become difficult in foods, which are highly processed or refined, such as starch, sugar or vegetable oils. Thus, the efficiency of the PCR, as with any other DNA assay, depends on the DNA quality and purity.
Transgenic maize
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