Saturday, June 26, 2021

Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fish farming

Common carp belongs to the order Cypriniformes and the family Cyprinidae, which is considered the largest family of freshwater fish.

This fish is very much favored for cultivation in ponds in Asia, Near and Far East, alone or in combination with other fishes, because of its excellent growth rate, omnivorous habit, breeding in confined waters (unlike the Indian and Chinese major carps), hardy nature and easy adaptation to artificial feeds.

Fish culture is the production of more fish than the normal through gradual application of different techniques to produce natural food for fish in the water and/or through the application of supplementary feed from external sources. The contribution of supplementary feed to the carp growth gain amounts to around 25–50% of the total yield. This semi-extensive fish production averages around 450–500 kg of fish per ha.

The common carp is a widely cultured strictly freshwater fish which can reach a length of about 80 cm and weight of about 10 to 15 kg.

In general fish production is excellent in a pond excavated in fertile soil. Fertile land supplies natural fish food and plays role against water pollution. Generally, soils are of 4 types – silt, sand, red (mud) and loam. Ponds with loamy soil are best suited for carp poly culture.

The temperature range is from 1 to 40°C while the fish starts growing at water temperatures above 13°C and reproduces at temperatures above 18°C when the water flow is increased suddenly.

The best pH of the soil for fish culture is 6.5 – 8. The availability of pH increases in optimum pH. pH less than 6 makes the soil acidic and presence of harmful substances are observed in the water.

Fishponds provide ecosystem services similar to those generated by natural wetlands and shallow lakes. However, unlike natural water bodies, water and trophic conditions in the ponds are controlled and modified by fish farmers.

Carp are usually mature after about 2 years and a weight of 2 to 3 kg. In temperate zones, carp spawns each year in spring while in the tropics spawning takes place every 3 months. The female carp can produce 100,000 to 150,000 eggs per kg body weight.
Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fish farming

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